 MORE IN Hydrology & Irrigation Engineering
VTU Civil Engineering (Semester 5)
Hydrology & Irrigation Engineering
May 2016
Total marks: --
Total time: --
INSTRUCTIONS
(1) Assume appropriate data and state your reasons
(2) Marks are given to the right of every question
(3) Draw neat diagrams wherever necessary

1(a) With neat sketch, explain the various types precipitation.
8 M
1(b) What is Rain gauge? Explain with neat sketch, working principle of Symon's non recording gauge and its demerits.
8 M
1(c) Raingauge station "X" did not function for a part of a month during which a storm occurred. The storm produced rainfalls of 84, 70 and 96mm at three surrounding stations A, B and C respectively. The normal annual rainfalls at the stations "X", A, B and C are respectively 770, 882, 736 and 944 mm. Estimate the missing storm rainfall at station "X".
4 M

2(a) Define Evaporation. With a neat sketch, explain measurement of evaporation using I.S. class "A" pan.
8 M
2(b) What is Infiltration? Explain the measurement of infiltration using double rising Infiltrometer (with a neat sketch).
8 M
2(c) The rates of rainfall for the successive 30min period of a 3-hour storm are 1.6, 3.6, 5.0, 2.8, 2.2, 1.0 cm/hr. The corresponding surface runoff is estimated to be 3.6cm. Establish the ϕ - Index. Also determine the W - Index.
4 M

3(a) Define Unit Hydrograph. Explain the assumptions made in deriving the unit hydrograph.
8 M
3(b) Write brief note on Base Flow Separation.
4 M
3(c) The Ordinates of a 3 hour unit hydrograph are given below.
 Time in hr 0 3 6 9 12 15 18 21 24 27 30 Ordinates m3/sec 0 10 25 20 16 12 9 7 5 3 0

Find the ordinates of a 6 hour unit hydrograph for the basin, analytically. What is the peak value of discharge in this unit hydrograph?
8 M

4(a) What do you mean by the term flood? Mention the factors affecting flood. Explain any two of them.
8 M
4(b) Mention any two empirical formulae used to estimate the flood (briefly explain).
4 M
4(c) Differentiate between Channel routing and Reservoir routing.
4 M

5(a) Define the term Irrigation. What are the necessity of irrigation?
6 M
5(b) With neat sketches, explain Bandhara Irrigation. List its advantages of disadvantages.
8 M
5(c) List benefits and ill efffects of irrigation.
6 M

6(a) List and explain in brief Common Indian Soils generally encountered.
8 M
6(b) With neat sketch, explain soil moisture presence in different zones.
6 M
6(c) The following data pertains to healthy growth of a crop:
i) Field capacity of soil = 30% ii) Permanent wilting point %age = 11%
iii) Density of soil = 1300 kg/m3 iv) Effective depth of root zone = 700mm
v) Daily consumptive use of water = 12mm.
For healthy growth moisture content must not fall below 25% of water holding capacity between the field capacity and the permanent wilting point. Determine the water Interval in days.
6 M

7(a) Define "Duty" and "Delta" and also write their relationship. What are the factors on which duty depends?
8 M
7(b) Explain any four methods of assessment of Irrigation water.
4 M
7(c) The base Period, Intensity if Irrigation and duty of water for various crops under a canal system are given in the Table below. Determine the reservoir capacity if the culturable commanded area is 40,000 hectares, canal losses are 20% and reservoir losses are 10%.
 Crop Base period (days) Duty of water at the field (hectares/cumec) Intensity of Irrigation (percentage) Wheat 120 1800 20 Sugarcane 360 1700 20 Cotton 180 1400 10 Rice 120 800 15 Vegetables 120 700 15
8 M

8(a) Define Canals. Explain beiefly classification based on discharge and relative importance in a given network of canals.
8 M
8(b) Explain various considerations for alignment of a canal.
8 M
8(c) Write short notes on:
i) Critical velocity ratio ii) Regime channel.
4 M

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