1 (a)
Define hydrology and explain briefly the practical applications of Hydrology.

8 M

1 (b)
Explain how the Double mass curve method is used to test the consistency of rainfall record.

6 M

1 (c)
The average annual rainfall of 8 rain gauge station in basin are 1000, 950, 900, 850, 800, 700, 600, 400mm. If the permissible error is 6% determine the optimum number of rain gauges required in the basin.

6 M

2 (a)
Define Evaporation (E) and Evapo-transpiration (ET) and list out the factors affecting the evaporation.

6 M

2 (b)
Mention the different methods of measurement of rate of infiltration and describe anyone of them.

8 M

2 (c)
For a storm of 2 hr duration the rainfall rates are given below:

If ϕ-index is 3 cm/hr, estimate the surface runoff. Also determine W-Index.

If ϕ-index is 3 cm/hr, estimate the surface runoff. Also determine W-Index.

Time period (minutes) |
20 | 20 | 20 | 20 | 20 | 20 |

Rainfall rate (cm/hr) |
2.5 | 2.5 | 10.0 | 7.5 | 5.1 | 1.25 |

6 M

3 (a)
What is Unit hydrograph? State the assumptions and limitations of Unit Hydrograph Theory. (Any 3 each).

8 M

3 (b)
Explain how base flow is separated from a simple storage hydrograph, with a neat sketch (any two methods).

6 M

3 (c)
The ordinates of 4hr unit hydrograph are given below. Determine the ordinates of 12 hr unit hydrograph.

Time (hr) |
0 | 4 | 8 | 12 | 16 | 20 | 24 | 28 | 32 | 36 | 40 | 44 | 48 |

Ordinates of unit hydrograph (4hr) cumecs |
0 | 5 | 110 | 220 | 150 | 115 | 90 | 70 | 60 | 50 | 30 | 20 | 0 |

6 M

4 (a)
Define the terms Flood and Flood routing.

4 M

4 (b)
What is the importance of Design Flood? List out the factors affecting flood.

8 M

4 (c)
An Urban catchment has an area of 1km

Estimate the required peak flow rates by using runoff co-efficient as 0.40.

^{2}. The slope of the catchment is 0.005 and the maximum length of travel of water is 500m. The maximum depth of rainfall with a 20 years return period is as given below:Estimate the required peak flow rates by using runoff co-efficient as 0.40.

Duration (tc) (minutes) |
10 | 15 | 20 |

Depth of rainfall (cm) |
4.0 | 5.0 | 6.0 |

8 M

5 (a)
Define the term Irrigation and Explain the necessity of Irrigation in India.

6 M

5 (b)
Explain the Flow Irrigation System with the aid of necessary sketches.

8 M

5 (c)
Write a note on Environmental impacts of Irrigation.

6 M

6 (a)
Explain the essential soil conditions for good plant growth.

6 M

6 (b)
Give a brief classification of Indian soils.

6 M

6 (c)
After how many days you will supply water to soil in order to ensure sufficient irrigation of the given crop, if field capacity of the soil is 35%, permanent wilting point is 18%, density of soil is 1.50 gm/cc, effective depth of root zone is 70 cm and daily consumptive use of water for the given crop is 17mm. Assume that readily available moisture is 75% of the available moisture.

8 M

7 (a)
Define Duty and Delta and given the relationship between them.

4 M

7 (b)
Explain the terms: i) Base period ii) Crop period iii) Crop season iv) Irrigation requirement.

8 M

7 (c)
Two canal system A and B have the cultural command area of 30000 ha and 15000 ha and discharge 20m

^{3}/S and 10m^{3}/S respectively. The Intensity of Rabi crop and Base period for canal A are 85% and 120 days. For canal B intensity of Rabi crop and the Base period are 50% and 120 days. Which system is more efficinet?
8 M

8 (a)
Describe briefly the various considerations made in the alignment of an irrigation canal.

6 M

8 (b)
Explain briefly the classification of canal based on alignment.

6 M

8 (c)
Design an Irrigation channel by Kennedy's theory to carry a discharge of 5 cumecs. Take m=1.0, N=0.0225 and B/D=3.24.

8 M

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