1 (a)
What are the purposes of tacheometic surveying?

3 M

1 (b)
Explain stadia method of tacheometer.

4 M

1 (c)
The following observations were made using a tacheometer fitted with an anallatic lens, the multiplying constant being 100 and additive constant is 0 and the staff held vertically

Calculate the distance AB and the RLs of A and B. Find also the gradient of the line AB.

Inst. Station | Height Of Inst. | Staff Station | WCB | Vertical angle | Hair readings | Remark |

0 | 1.550 | A | 30° 30' | 4° 30' | 1.155, 1.755, 2.355 | RL of O = 150.00 |

B | 75° 30' | 10° 15' | 1.250, 2.000, 2.750 |

Calculate the distance AB and the RLs of A and B. Find also the gradient of the line AB.

7 M

2 (a)
What is triangulation? Explain principle of triangulation.

7 M

2 (b)
Explain with sketches different triangulation figures.

7 M

2 (c)
What is satellite station? Discuss the method of reduction of horizontal angle to
Center.

7 M

3 (a)
Define: Direct observation, conditioned quantity, true valve, true error, most
probable error, residual error, and observed equation.

7 M

3 (b)
Two triangulation stations A and B are 50 kilometer apart and have elevations
235 m and 250 m respectively. Find the minimum height of signal required at B so
that the line of sight may not pass near the ground 3 meters. The intervening
ground may be assumed to have uniform elevation of 200 meters.

7 M

3 (c)
What is weight of a quantity? Discuss various laws of weights.

7 M

3 (d)
Adjust the following angles closing the horizon:

A=112° 20' 47'' wt.2

B=90° 30' 15'' wt. 3

C=58° 12' 05'' wt. 1

D= 98° 57'01'' wt. 4

A=112° 20' 47'' wt.2

B=90° 30' 15'' wt. 3

C=58° 12' 05'' wt. 1

D= 98° 57'01'' wt. 4

7 M

4 (a)
Define: Zenith, nadir, horizon, prime vertical, celestial poles, vertical circle, and
Ecliptic.

7 M

4 (b)
Prove that altitude of pole is equal to latitude of observer.

7 M

4 (c)
Explain the scale of vertical photographs.

7 M

4 (d)
Calculate height of microwave tower appearing in a vertical photograph. The
distance of the tower in photograph from principal point is 6.03 cm and relief displacement measured is 0.603 cm. the datum scale of photo is \[\dfrac{1}{11000}\] and the focal distance of camera f = 20 cm.

7 M

5 (a)
Explain components of remote sensing.

7 M

5 (b)
Explain the interaction of EM energy with earth surface features.

7 M

5 (c)
Define GIS. Explain the objectives of GIS.

7 M

5 (d)
Discuss the application of GIS in civil engineering discipline.

7 M

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