1 (a)
Define the following fluid properties with units:

i) Mass density

ii) Specific gravity

iii) Dynamic viscosity

iv) Vapour pressure

v) Capillarity.

i) Mass density

ii) Specific gravity

iii) Dynamic viscosity

iv) Vapour pressure

v) Capillarity.

10 M

1 (b)
A 150mm diameter vertical cylinder rotates concentrically inside another cylinder of diameter 151.0mm. Both cylinder are 250mm high. The space between the cylinders is filled with a liquid whose viscosity is unknown. If a torque of 12 N-m is required to rotate the inner cylinder at 100rpm. Determine the viscosity of the fluid.

10 M

2 (a)
State and prove Pascal's law.

6 M

2 (b)
With neat sketch, explain Bourdon's pressure gauge.

6 M

2 (c)
An open tank contains water up to a depth of 2m and above it an oil of specific gravity 0.9 for a depth of 1m. Find the pressure intensity.

i) At the interface of the pressure intensity

ii) At the bottom of the tank.

i) At the interface of the pressure intensity

ii) At the bottom of the tank.

8 M

3 (a)
Define: i) Total Pressure;

ii) Centre of pressure

ii) Centre of pressure

4 M

3 (b)
Obtain an expression for total pressure and centres of pressure for inclined surface submerged in liquid.

8 M

3 (c)
A trapezoidal channel 2m wide at the bottom and 1m deep has sides slopes 1:1. Determine: i) Total pressure; ii) Centre of pressure, when it is full of water.

8 M

4 (a)
Distinguish between:

i) Laminar and turbulent flow

ii) Uniform and non uniform flow.

i) Laminar and turbulent flow

ii) Uniform and non uniform flow.

4 M

4 (b)
Obtain an expression for continuity equation for three dimensional flows.

8 M

4 (c)
If for a two dimensional potential flow, the velocity potential is given by ϕ=x(2y-1). Determine the velocity at the point P(4,5). Determine also the value of stream function ψ at the point P.

8 M

5 (a)
Derive Bernoulli's equation from Euler's equation with assumptions made.

8 M

5 (b)
Derive the equation from the discharge through venturimeter.

6 M

5 (c)
Water is flowing through a pipe having diameter 300mm and 200mm at the bottom and upper end respectively. The intensity of pressure at the bottom end is 24.52 N/cm

^{2}and the pressure at the upper end is 9.81 N/cm^{2}. Determine the difference in datum head if the flow through pipe is 40/ps.
6 M

6 (a)
Define:

i) Hydraulic gradient

ii) Energy gradient

i) Hydraulic gradient

ii) Energy gradient

4 M

6 (b)
Distinguish between compound pipe and equivalent pipe.

6 M

6 (c)
A1 a sudden enlargement of water main from 240mm to 480mm diameter, the hydraulic gradient rises by 10mm. Estimate the rate of flow.

10 M

7 (a)
Define hydraulic co-efficient and Determine the hydraulic co-efficient experimentally.

10 M

7 (b)
A 25mm diameter nozzle discharges 0.76 m

^{3}of water/minute, when the head is 60m. The diameter of the jet is 22.5mm. Determine the values of C_{c}, C_{v}, C_{d}and loss of head due to fluid resistance.
10 M

8 (a)
Distinguish between:

i) Sharp crested and broad crested weirs.

ii) Orifice and mouth piece.

iii) Broad crested weir and submerged weir.

i) Sharp crested and broad crested weirs.

ii) Orifice and mouth piece.

iii) Broad crested weir and submerged weir.

6 M

8 (b)
Derive an expression for discharge over a triangular notch.

6 M

8 (c)
Water flows over a rectangular weir 1m wide at a depth of 15 cm and afterwards passes through a triangular right angled weir. Taking C

_{d}for rectangular weir 0.62 and for triangular 0.59. Find the depth over the triangular weir.
8 M

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