Explain the following.

1 (a)
Determination of average rainfall over a catchment.

5 M

1 (b)
ill effects of irrigation.

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1 (c)
Well development.

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1 (d)
Relation between duty and delta.

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2 (a)
The culturable commanded area of water course is 120 hectares. Intensities of sugarcane and wheat crops are 20% and 40% respectively. The duties the crops at the head of water course are 730 ha/ cumecs and 1800 ha/ cumecs respectively. Find (i) the discharge required at head of the water course. (ii) determine the design discharge at outlet assuming a time factor of 0.8.

10 M

2 (b)
A 3- hour storm produced a flood hydrograph and the observation were at 3-hour intervals, staring from zero hour. The onserved discharges (cumecs) are 4,9,12,18,20,16,20,10,8,6,4. Assume constant base flow 4 cumes, determine unit hydrograph orfinates. The catchment area is 50sq.km.

10 M

3 (a)
Derive the equation for discharge from well in an unconfined aquifer.

10 M

3 (b)
A 30 cm dia well penetrates 20m below the static water table. After 24 hours of pumping at a rate 5000lt/ minute, the water level in a test well at 100m is lowered by 0.5m and in a well 30m away the drawdown is 1.00m what is the transmissibility of the aquifer? Also determine the drawndown in the main well.

10 M

4 (a)
Explain the foundation treatment for gravity dams.

10 M

4 (b)
A concrete dam can be assumed to be trapezoidal in section having top width 2m and bottom width 10m. Height of dam 15 m and its u/s face board allowance. Consider uplift pressure with intensity factor 100%. also determine stresses and heel. Assume weight of concrete 24 KN/m

^{3}, unit shear strength of concrete 14 kg/ m^{2}, and coefficient of friction between concrete and foundation soil is 0.7.
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5 (a)
Explain different types of spillway gates,

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5 (b)
Draw the elementary profile of gravity dam and explain the procedure for determine base width of elementary profile of gravity dam.

10 M

6 (a)
Explain the various causes of failure of earth dam.

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6 (b)
Explain with neat sketches the following

i) Rock toe

ii) Horizontal drainage blanket

iii) cut-off

iv) Rip-rap

i) Rock toe

ii) Horizontal drainage blanket

iii) cut-off

iv) Rip-rap

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Write notes on following

7 (a)
Drainage galleries.

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7 (b)
Losses of water in canals.

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7 (c)
Sprinkler irrigation.

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7 (d)
Life of reservoir

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