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MU Electronics Engineering (Semester 7)
Digital Image Processing
December 2014
Total marks: --
Total time: --
INSTRUCTIONS
(1) Assume appropriate data and state your reasons
(2) Marks are given to the right of every question
(3) Draw neat diagrams wherever necessary

1 (a) Differentiate between spatial and tonal resolutions
5 M
1 (b) Why is the sum of coefficients of a high pass filter mask zero?
5 M
1 (c) Compare Huffman coding and arithmetic coding;
5 M
1 (d) Give 3×3 masks for Laplacian filter, horizontal, vertical, +45° and -45° line detector
5 M
1 (e) Explain dilation and erosion in brief
5 M

2 (a) Explain the following enhancement operation and draw the graph of transformation function
i) Clipping ii) Bit plane slicing
10 M
2 (b) Perform histogram equalization on the following image histogram and plot original and equalized histograms.
 Gray Level 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Number of pixels 200 300 500 350 250 0 0 0
10 M

3 (a) A source emits 6 symbols with the following probabilities
 Symbol A B C D E F Probability 0.1 0.2 0.05 0.05 0.35 0.25

Construct the Huffman code. Calculate the average code word length and coding efficiency
10 M
3 (b) Perform region splitting and merging on the image segment shown below. Draw the quad tree. Briefly explain the method used.

10 M

4 (a) Calculate the Hadamard transform of the image segment,
$\begin{matrix} f(x,y)= \end{matrix}\begin{bmatrix} 2 &3 &1 &4 \\2 &1 &1 &4 \\1 &3 &4 &4 \\3 &3 &2 &2 \end{bmatrix}$
5 M
4 (b) State and prove any two properties of 2DDFT.
5 M
4 (c) Obtain the 16 basis images of Hadamard transform.
10 M

5 (a) Given the 8 x 8 image segment, perform erosion using the strumming element shown:
 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1

Structuring element :
 1 1 1 1
10 M
5 (b) With the help of a neat block diagram, explain the working of the homomorphic filter.
10 M

6 (a) What are chain codes? Obtain 4 connected and 8 connected chain codes for the boundary shown below:

10 M
6 (b) Explain in detail different types of data redundancies present in the digital images
10 M

Write short notes on any four of the following:
7 (a) Opening and closing
5 M
7 (b) Colour models
5 M
7 (c) Finger print recognition
5 M
7 (d) Digital water marking
5 M
7 (e) Handwritten character recognition.
5 M

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