1 (a)
What is pointer? How pointer are declared and initialized in C?

3 M

1 (b)
What is dangling pointer reference and how to avoid it?

4 M

1 (c)
Estimate the space complexity of a recursive function for summing a list of numbers

5 M

1 (d)
Define the term "space and time complexity". Apply program step counter method to estimate the time complexity of a function to add two matrices.

8 M

2 (a)
With a suitable example, explain dynamic memory allocation for 2-d arrays.

4 M

2 (b)
Define a structure for the employee with the following fields:

Emp_Id(integer), Emp_Name(string), Emp_Basic(float), Emp_Dept(strng) and Emp_Age(integer). Write the following functions to process the employee data:

i) Function to read an employee record

ii) Function to print an employee record

Emp_Id(integer), Emp_Name(string), Emp_Basic(float), Emp_Dept(strng) and Emp_Age(integer). Write the following functions to process the employee data:

i) Function to read an employee record

ii) Function to print an employee record

8 M

2 (c)
Write the "fast transpose" algorithm of a sparse matrix. Why the name "fast transpose"?

8 M

3 (a)
What is the advantages of circular queue over linear queue? Write the insert and delete functions for circular implementation of queues.

8 M

3 (b)
Explain infix to postfix expression algorithm and trace it for an expression "a*(b+c)*d".

8 M

3 (c)
How multiple stacks implemented using one dimensional array? Explain with a suitable example.

4 M

4 (a)
Write the following functions for singly linked list:

i) Reverse the list ii) Concatenate two list

i) Reverse the list ii) Concatenate two list

8 M

4 (b)
Write the node structure for linked representation of polynomial. Explain the algorithm to add two polynomials represented using linked lists.

8 M

4 (c)
What is the advantage of doubly linked list over singly linked list? Illustrate with an example.

4 M

5 (a)
Illustrate with a suitable example define:

i) Binary tree

ii) Degree of a binary tree

iii) Level of a binary tree

iv) Sibling

i) Binary tree

ii) Degree of a binary tree

iii) Level of a binary tree

iv) Sibling

8 M

5 (b)
For any nonempty binary tree T, if n

_{0}is the number of leaf nodes and n_{2}the number of nodes of degree 2, then prove that n_{0}=n_{2}+1
4 M

5 (c)
What is the advantage of threaded binary tree over binary tree? Explain threaded binary tree construction with a suitable example.

8 M

6 (a)
What is binary search tree? Write a recursive search routine for a binary search tree.

8 M

6 (b)
Explain selection trees, with suitable example.

6 M

6 (c)
What is a forest? With suitable example illustrate how you transform a forest into a binary tree.

6 M

7 (a)
Define priority queue. List the single-ended and double-ended priority queue operations.

6 M

7 (b)
Define the following:

i) Leftist trees

ii) Min leftist trees and

iii) Weighted leftist trees.

i) Leftist trees

ii) Min leftist trees and

iii) Weighted leftist trees.

6 M

7 (c)
What is binomial heap? Explain the following associated with binomial heap:

i) Insertion into a binomial heap

ii) Melding two binomial heaps and

iii) Deletion of min element.

i) Insertion into a binomial heap

ii) Melding two binomial heaps and

iii) Deletion of min element.

8 M

Write short notes on:

8 (a)
Optimal binary search trees

5 M

8 (b)
AVL trees

5 M

8 (c)
Red-Black trees

5 M

8 (d)
Splay trees

5 M

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